16.0 Magnetic Levitation:


A Maglev vehicle guides itself and propels itself by use of magnetic forces. Using Maglev, reverse polarization pushes cars while magnetic attraction pulls cars towards each other or a fixed point. Electromagnetic suspension (AEMS@) uses repelling magnetic forces to lift a vehicle slightly above an opposing surface. In several current applications, propulsion coils guide vehicles forward along a centerline by using intersecting (diagonal) magnetic forces for directional stability.

16.2The Ultimate Goal:

Various demonstration systems in several countries have demonstrated the effectiveness of Maglev in transportation environments. Speeds reaching 361 mph have been recorded by Japan=s Yamanashi Prefecture test trains. Except at very high speeds, Maglev trains are quieter, and will eventually become less expensive to operate than standard trains. They are environmentally friendly and require no oil based fuel. Maglev vehicles are extremely smooth and quiet internally.

16.3Construction Costs, Commonalities:

Maglev projects are currently constrained by very high construction costs when compared to typical rail trains. Current technologies do not provide much margin for profitable operation due to the cost of acquiring land, building guide lanes and an operator=s cost of acquiring vehicles capable of running via Maglev. Infrastructure control costs are also significant. Maglev trains are not compatible with typical rail tracks and most systems in use today use different designs and construction techniques. Maglev vehicles have been proven to climb and decent at as much as six (6) degrees. HPR vehicles will be able to climb at an estimated seventy (70) degree angle although that requirement is not envisioned during HPR operations.

16.4Patents and Intellectual Properties:

Original Patents for Maglev vehicles in the United States and many other countries expired years ago. The basic Maglev technology is available to any organization. In addition to the United States, the HPR Patent Application has been, or will be, filed in most developed countries to include the application of Maglev technology.